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Wednesday, July 8, 2020

The Toltec Civilization

Toltec Pictograph
By-Cvmontuy (License: Public Domain (Original image))

The Toltec civilization flourished in ancient central Mexico between the middle of the 10th and 12th centuries. Continuing the Mesoamerican legacy left to him earlier by Olmec, Teotihuacán, Maya, and others, Toltec would build an impressive capital in Tollan and, eventually, pass that legacy on to later civilizations such as the Aztec, which made Toltec a great Believed And rich civilization, even claiming descent from the once great civilization.

Much of Toltec's information comes from Aztec and later colonial texts that documented earlier oral traditions. However, these are by no means exhaustive, and the information may be colored by the Aztec's special reverence for all the Aztecs and their joy in merging the myth to help establish the lineage with these older masters. Nevertheless, a careful comparison with earlier Mayan texts and surviving archaeological records allows underlining at least the main elements of this civilization.

Rise of Toltec

The Toltec had its roots in the Tolteca-Chichimca people, who migrated from the northwest desert to Culhuacán in the Valley of Mexico during the 9th century AD. According to Aztec, the first Toltec leader was Ce Técpatl Mixcoatl (One Flint Cloud Serpent i.e. Milky Way), and his son Ce Acatl Topiltzin (a reed succifier born 9 reeds or 947 CE) would go on to gain fame. As a great ruler and among his titles the great gods derive the name of Quetzalcoatl ('winged serpent'). Toltecas' first settlement was in Culhuacan, but he later established Tollan (or Tula, meaning 'to establish a capital'), a common Mesoamerican phrase to apply in all large settlements). The city developed over an area of ​​14 km² and acquired a population between 30,000 and 40,000. The heart of the city was laid out in a grid pattern and is probably similar to the city of Mayen of Chichen Itza. Interestingly, Maya likewise had an adaptation of a cultural hero, known as 'Feathered Serpent', deciphered as Kukulcan and contemporary with Toltec Quetzalcóatl; This and engineering likenesses propose that there was a close cultural connection between the two civilizations.

Inheritance of Toltec

The name Toltec grew to a certain reputation and they were highly regarded, especially by the Maya and Aztec, who seem to imitate the Toltec religious practices and many facets of art, and see the Toltec period as a golden age. Are when such miracles happen. Writing, medicine and metallurgy were invented. These may well have been invented earlier and by others but more certainly have a Toltec influence on architecture and sculpture. Images of deities identified in Tollan that would later appear in Aztec pantyhons include winged serpents identified with centeotl, Xochiquetzal, Tlahuizcalpantecuhtli, and Quetzalcoatl. The chacmools and tzompantli (racks of skulls) used in the carvings and sacrifices of cuauhxicalli stones which are all due to Toltec's influence will be on his more famous heirs. In any case, for the Aztec, the true legacy of the people of Tollan, it was Toltecus and none other than those they sought to claim from the dynasty, and the magnitude of their reverence and respect would appear in the Aztec expression Toltecayotl or ' is. There is a Toltec heart which means deserving and excelling in all things.

Decline of Toltec Civilization

What finished the Toltec human progress' provincial predominance isn't known. A warlike people, almost certainly vanquishing encompassing clans and forcing tribute with no worry for combination into the Toltec political and strict culture, the 'domain' may well have simply disintegrated when put under the strain of such natural phenomena as a sustained drought. Internal disputes may also have led to the break up of the power structure, and this is hinted at in the legendary stories of battles between the gods Quetzalcoatl and Tezcatlipoca, intertwined with historical figures. What is progressively sure is that in the mid-twelfth century CE, Tollán gives indications of rough annihilation; numerous building segments and sculptures were scorched and intentionally covered and the site was systematically looted by the Aztecs. Driven by the last Toltec leader Huemac, the remainders of the Toltec individuals re-settled at Chapultepec on the west banks of Lake Texcoco, an occasion generally dated either 1156 or 1168 CE.

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