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Wednesday, July 15, 2020

The Stone Age


From the dawn of our species to the present day, stone artifacts are the predominant form of physical remains that are related to human technology today.

The term "Stone Age", Danish scholar Christian J. It was coined in the late 19th century by Thomson, who came up with an outline for the study of the human past, known as the "Three Age System". The basis of this framework is technical: it revolves around the notion of three successive periods or eras: the Stone Age, the Bronze Age, and the Iron Age, each era technically more complex than the first. Thomson came up with the idea that after seeing that artifacts found in archaeological sites exhibit regularity in terms of the material that was made with them: stone tools were always found in the deepest layers , Bronze artifacts in layers above the deepest layers. , And finally artifacts made of iron were found closest to the surface. It suggested that metal technology later evolved from stone tools.
This "three age system" has received some criticism. There are scholars who believe that this approach is very technically oriented. Others say that this stone-bronze-iron pattern has hardly any meaning when applied outside of Europe. Despite the critics, the system is still used extensively today and, although it has limitations, it can be helpful as long as we remember that it is a simplified framework.

Chronological order of Stone Age

The Stone Age begins with the first production of stone tools and ends with the first use of bronze. Since the ordered limits of the Stone Age depend on mechanical improvement as opposed to real date runs, its length changes in various locales of the world. The earliest global date for the beginning of the Stone Age is 2.5 million years ago in Africa, and the last date is around 3300 BC, which is the starting of the Bronze Age in the Near East. There is evidence that 2.5 million years of stone tool manufacturing can be pushed further back. The reason is that the ability to use the tool and even its construction is not specific to our species: there are studies that suggest that bonobos use stone tools to gain access to food in an experimental setting Are able to do. Nevertheless, there are differences between tools produced by modern apes and those produced by early toolmakers, who had better biochemical and cognitive skills and produced more efficient tools. The distinction, however, is of degree, not of nature. In fact, early instruments pre-date the emergence of the genus Homo, and it is believed that Australia had some of the first instrument makers. In addition, some researchers have claimed that the earliest stone tools may have been even earlier: 3.4 million years ago. Although no stone tools that have been found to be older, some bone marks and gouge marks have been found in Ethiopia, which may represent a cut mark made from stone tools. This approach, however, has not been widely accepted: the mark has also been thought to be the result of crocodile predation or animal tug of war.

Division of the Stone

Old Stone Age or Paleolithic: From the first production of stone artifacts about 2.5 million years ago, to the end of the last ice age, around 9,600 BCE. This is the longest stone age.
The fundamental kinds of proof are fossilized human remains and stone devices, which show a progressive increment in their multifaceted nature. Depending on the quality of techniques and equipment employed, there are many stone industries (sometimes known as "lithic" industries). The first of these (2.5 million years ago) is called Oldowan, a very simple chopper and flex. About 1.7 million years ago, we find another type of lithic industry, called achlin, producing more complex and symmetric shapes with sharp edges. There are numerous different kinds of lithic ventures, at long last towards the finish of the Paleolithic, around 40,000 years back, we see a "transformation" of lithic enterprises where various types of coexistence and rapid development have occurred. Around this same time, we also have the first recorded expressions of artistic life: personal ornaments, cave paintings and mobile art.

Middle Stone Age or Mesolithic: In simply logical terms, the Mesolithic starts toward the finish of a period referred to in topography as the Younger Dryas stadial, the last frosty spell, marking the end of the Ice Age, approximately. 9,600 BC. The Mesolithic period ends when agriculture begins. This is the time of the late hunter dogs.

Since agribusiness created at various occasions in various locales of the world, there is no single date for the finish of the Mesolithic time frame.
Indeed, even inside a particular locale, agribusiness created during various occasions.
For instance, agribusiness previously created in Southeast Europe around 7,000 BCE, in Central Europe around 5,500 BCE, and in Northern Europe around 4,000 BCE. All these factors make the chronological range of the Mesolithic fuzzy in some way. In addition, some regions do not have a Mesolithic period. One example is of the Near East, where agriculture developed around 9,000 BCE, shortly after the end of the ice age.
During the Mesolithic period, significant large-scale changes occurred on our planet. As the climate was warming and the ice sheets were melting, some areas in the northern latitudes grew as they were freeing from the weight of the ice. At the same time, sea levels rose, sinking into the lowlands, resulting in major land changes around the world: the Japanese islands separated from the Asian mainland, Australia from Tasmania, continental Europe, East Asia, and the British Isles from the north went. The US split with the flooding of the Bering Strait, and Sumatra split from Malaysia with the formation of a Strait correspondent. Around 5,000 BCE, the size of continents and islands was much larger than at the present time.

Neolithic Age: Begins with the beginning of farming, various dating from c. 9,000 BCE in the Near East, c. 7,000 BC in southeast Europe, c. 6,000 BC in East Asia, and later in other regions as well. This is the time when cereal cultivation and animal domination were introduced.

To illustrate the deep impact of agriculture on the human population, an Australian archaeologist named Gordon Child popularized the term "Neolithic Revolution" in the 1940s. Present time it is accepted that the effect of farming advancement was misrepresented previously: the improvement of Neolithic culture has become more continuous instead of unexpected change.

Agriculture has brought major changes in the way human society is organized and how it uses the Earth, including forest clearances, root crops, and grain farming that can be stored for a long time, as well as farming And development of new techniques for herring. As plows, irrigation systems, etc. Progressively escalated horticulture implies more food accessible to more individuals, more towns, and a development for increasingly complex social and political association. As the population density of the villages increases, they gradually develop into cities and finally towards the end of the Neolithic Age in cities, copper metallurgy is introduced, which is a transition period in the Bronze Age. The symbol is, sometimes called the Chalcolithic or Anolithic era.

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