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Wednesday, July 1, 2020

Script of Indus Valley Civilization

By-ALFGRN (License: Creative Commons (Original image))

The Indus script is the writing system developed by the Indus Valley Civilization and is the earliest form of writing known in the Indian subcontinent. The origin of this script is poorly understood: this writing system is undefined, there is no agreement on the language it represents, thus far no bilingual texts have been found and its proper with the Indian writing system The relationship (such as Brahmi, Devanagari and Bengali script) is not certain. This is the main reason that the Indus Valley Civilization is one of the least known of the important early civilizations of antiquity.

During the early Harappan phase (c. 3500–2700 BCE), we find the earliest known examples of Indus script signs, which were excavated in Harappan in the pottery of Rao and Kot Diji. Based on the fact that only one signal is displayed on the surface of the pottery, these examples represent a premature stage in the development of the Indus script. Its entire development took place during the urban period (c. 2600–1900 BCE), when inscriptions are now recorded. A huge number of engravings are known from somewhere in the range of 60 excavation destinations: the majority of them are short, the normal length is five signs and none of them is longer than 26 signs.

Form of Indus Script

There are many of the Indus scripts are found some instances of Indus writing have been found on seals and seal impressions, stoneware, bronze apparatuses, stone bangles, bones, shells, stepping stools, ivory and little tablets made of steatite, bronze and copper. Square stamp seals are the predominant form of Indus writing media; They are usually one inch square (2.54 cm) displaying a script at the top in the center and an animal figure. They are mainly made of steatite, some of them containing a layer of a smooth glassy looking material, but there are also examples of seals made of silver, finesse, and calcite. The seal was pressed on a flat surface (such as clay) to replicate its image.
Since the Indus script has not yet been fragmented, its use is not known with certainty and we think we are aware that it is based only on archaeological evidence. Some seals could be used as amulets or talismans, but they also had a practical function as markers for identification. Since writing in the Ancient world has for the most part been related with aristocrats attempting to record and control exchanges, it is additionally accepted that the Indus content was utilized as a regulatory device. There are also examples of this script, which are used on clay tags attached to bundles of goods traded between merchants; Some of these clay tags have been found in the Mesopotamia region, outside the Indus Valley, a testament to how extensive objects traveled in ancient times.

The Indus script was also used to refer to 'narrative fiction': these paintings included scenes related to myths or stories, where the script was combined with images of humans, animals, and / or imaginary creatures that were activated in poses. This end-use resembles religious, controversial, and literary usage that is well attested in other writing systems.

Decline or Fall of Indus scripts

By 1800 BCE, when the Indus Valley Civilization started to fall. As part of this process, writing began to disappear. Since the Indus Valley civilization was dying, the script they invented. The Vedic culture that would dominate North India for centuries to come, did not have a writing system, nor did they adopt the Indus script. In fact, India will have to wait for more than 1,000 years to see the return of writing.

Attempts to Enucleation of Indus Script

More than 400 original signs have been identified as part of the Indus script. Of these, only 31 signals occurred more than 100 times, while the rest were not used regularly. This led researchers to believe that a large volume of the Indus script was actually written on pear material, such as palm leaves or birch, which could not survive the destruction of time. It is hardly surprising that palm leaves, birch and bamboo tubes were widely used as writing surfaces in South and Southeast Asia. A few researchers have contended that around 400 symbols can really be decreased to 39 essential signs, the rest being only contrasts among classifications and scribes.
There are several factors preventing scholars from revealing the mystery of the Indus script. To begin with some languages   of ancient times, such as Egypt, were thanks to the recovery of bilingual inscriptions that compare an unknown script to a known one. Unfortunately, no bilingual inscription has yet been found to allow the Indus script to be compared to a known writing system.

Another obstacle to its interpretation relates to the fact that all the inscriptions found so far are relatively few, with fewer than 30 signs. This means that analyzing recurring sign patterns, another technique that can help unlock the meaning of a writing system, cannot be performed successfully for the Indus script. The final important reason that the Indus script is unspecified, and possibly the most debated of all. Whether the language (or languages) that the script represents is still unknown. Scholars have suggested several possibilities: Indo-European and Dravidian are two language families that are most preferred, but other options have also been proposed, such as Austroasiatic, Sino-Tibetan, or perhaps a language family that has been lost . Based on the material culture associated with the Indus Valley Civilization, many scholars have suggested that this civilization was not Indo-European.

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