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Tuesday, July 14, 2020

Roman Colosseum | Seven Wonders


Colosseum (also known as Flavian Amphitheater or Coliseum) is a large elliptical area which is build in first century CE under the rule of Roman Emperors of the Flavian dynasty:Vespasian (69–79 CE), Titus (79–81 CE) and Domitian (81–96 CE). This arena was utilized to have fabulous open diversion occasions, for example, fighter battles, wild creature chasing and open executions from 80 to 404 AD.

Architecture of Colosseum

The theater was also spectacular from the outside, with monumental open arches on each of the first three floors presenting statues-filled arches. The first floor carried Doric columns, the second Ionic and the third level Corinthians, the top floor had Corinthian pilasters and small rectangular windows. There were no fewer than eighty entrances, seventy-six of these were numbered and tickets for each were sold. Two entrances were used for gladiators, one of which was known as Porta Libitina (Roman goddess of death) and was the door through which the dead were removed from the arena. The second door was Porta Sanivivaria through which the winners and contestants left the arena. The last two doors were reserved exclusively for the use of the emperor. Furthermore, the theater would have been even more impressive when seats at three levels were filled with all sections of the population. Surrounding the arena is a wide marble terrace (podium) protected by a wall within which were iconic ring-side seats or boxes from which the emperor and other dignitaries would watch the events. Beyond this region, marble seats were partitioned into areas: for well off private residents, white collar class residents, slaves and outsiders lastly wooden seats and high level rooftops reserved for womens and the poor. in the room. Sailors were assigned to this rooftop platform to manage the large canopy (velarium) that protected the viewer from rain or provided shade on hot days. Different levels of seats were accessed through extensive stairs with each staircase descending and the number of seats. The Colosseum had a total capacity of approximately 45,000 seating and 5,000 spectators. One of the earliest depictions of the Colosseum appeared on Titus's coins and shows a view of all verbs on three levels, statues in the upper outer arches and large column fountains - Meta Sudan - which stood nearby. The location of all the activity - the sanded field floor- was likewise attractive. It was often seen during the staging of wild animal hunting (venatiories) with rocks and trees resembling exotic locations. There were also simple underground lifting mechanisms that allowed for the sudden introduction of wild animals into action. On some occasions, the arena was filled to host a mock naval fight, particularly the show's opening series. Under the arena floor (and visible to the modern visitor) was a circle of small compartment rooms, corridors and animal cuttings.

Why Colosseum built? & it's Dimensions

The construction of the Colosseum began in 72 CE during the reign of Vespasian, which at the time was the lake and gardens of the Golden House of Emperor Nero. It was drained and a six meter deep earthquake was put as a precaution against possible concrete loss. The building was part of an extensive construction program initiated by Emperor Vespasian to restore Rome to its former glory before the recent civil war upheaval. As Vespasian guaranteed on his coins with the engraving Roma resurgens, new structures - the Temple of Peace, Sanctuary of Claudius and the Colosseum - would show the world. The Favian Amphitheater (or Amphitetrum flavium as it was known to the Romans) was opened for business in 80 CE in the reign of Titus, Vespasian's eldest son, with a hundred-day radiator splendor and finally completed in the reign of another son Happened. Domitian. The finished building was nothing to be seen before, between the wide valley joining the Esquiline, the Palatine and the Caelian hills, it dominated the city.
The largest building of its kind, it had four stories, height of 45 meters high (150 feet), width of 189 x 156 meters, an oval area, 87.8 meters in length, 54.8 meters, canvas roof and capacity of 50,000 audience.
The theater was built primarily of locally engraved limestone (tufa) with interiors connecting brick, concrete and volcanic stone interior walls. The vaults were made of lighter pumice stone. The sheer size of the theater was a possible origin of the popular name of Colosseo, however, a more likely origin may be as a reference to the giant gold bronze statue of Nero that was thought to resemble the sun-god and which stood out Theater until the 20th century CE.

History

In 404 CE, with changing times and tastes, the game of the Colosseum was later abolished by Emperor Honorius, although condemned criminals were still made to fight wild animals for a century. The building itself would face a checkered future, although it was superior to many other royal buildings during the Empire's decline. Damaged by the earthquake in 422 CE it was repaired by the emperors Theodosius II and Valentinian III. Repairs were also made in 467, 472 and 508 CE. The site continued to be used for wrestling matches and animal hunting until the sixth century AD, but signs of neglect began to appear in the building and grass was left to grow in the arena. In the 12th century it became the stronghold of the Frangipani and Annibaldi families.The extraordinary seismic tremor(earthquake) of 1231 CE prompted the breakdown of the southwest veneer and the colosseum turned into a vast source of building material - stones and sections were removed, blocks holding iron clamps together were stolen, and sculptures for lime. Was melted down. Indeed, Pope Alexander VI actually leased the Colosseum as a mine. Although this collapsed, the site was still used occasionally for religious processions and play during the 15th century.

From the Renaissance period both artists and architects, such as Michelangelo and later on his Grand Tour, took a renewed interest in Roman architecture and ruins. As a result, Pope Benedict XIV, in 1744 AD, did not put any restrictions on the removal of masonry from the Colosseum and respected him in memory of the martyrs who were martyred there. However, this did not prevent the local people from using it as an animal stables and its neglect was reflected in the curious work of Richard Deakin, who in 1844 AD saw 420 plant varieties flourishing in ruin, some rare And even locally unique - perhaps its origin from food given to exotic animals all those centuries ago. In the 19th century, however, the fortunes of the once great amphitheater began to be rectified. Pope officials sought to restore parts of the building, most notably the east and west end, the latter supported by a massive buttress. At long last, in 1871 CE, the Italian archeologist Pietro Rosa evacuated the entirety of the Roman aggregates after it showed up, regardless of its devaluation, a still glorious landmark, a dexterous and enduring testimony to both the skill and personality of the Roman world.

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