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Monday, July 13, 2020

Chichen Itza |Seven Wonders

Chichen Itza

Chichen Itza, one from seven wonders, it is located on the northern tip of the Yucatan Peninsula of modern-day Mexico, was a Mayan city heavily influenced by the later Toltec civilization. Is flourishing between C. 750 and 1200 CE, the site is wealthy in great design and model that advances topics of militarism and showcases symbolism of jaguars, falcons and winged snakes. Possibly a capital city that ruled over a confederation of neighboring states, Chichen Itza was one of the great Mesoamerican cities and is today one of the most popular tourist destinations in Mexico. Chichen Itza is listed as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO.

History of Chichen Itza

Chichen Itza, this name is derived from the a big sinkhole, also know as Sacred Cenote or 'Itza well's mouth',in which Maya threw offerings of jade and gold, and the presence of bones as human sacrifices. The early history of the site is still unclear, but settlement was certain by the Classic period (c. 250–900 CE). With the fall of Teotihuacan, migrants may have arrived at the site from isolated parts of Mesoamerica, and it seems likely to have had contact with Itza, a Mayan group. The second period of construction corresponds to the influence of the Toltec civilization. It is that Chichen Itza was a trading center, with Isla Cerritos a port, as evidenced by goods elsewhere in Central America, for example, turquoise from the north, gold discs from the south, and Obsidian from Isthmus in Tehuantepec. Cocoa farming is known, and the city may have controlled attractive salt beds on the nearby northern coast.
The city has generally been isolated into two particular parts and periods, despite the fact that there is some cover in both time and structure, and together they spread exactly 16 square kilometers. First, to the south, is the original Maya displaying typical 'Puch' architectural styles and Mayan hieroglyphs with buildings from the Epiclassic period (c. 800–1000 CE). The plan extends more than in other parts of the city and is built almost on a north-south axis, which may reflect the course of the Xtoloc Cenote water source.
The second part of the city is traditionally dated to 1000–1200 CE and is more mysterious, one of the most controversial debates in Mesoamerican archeology. Built in the Florescent style and with an increasingly reviewed arrangement, it shows numerous signs of the Toltec Civilization, persuading that they either vanquished Chichen Itza, as they built their capital Tula more than 1,000 km away. Expanded his empire from Tula, or was some sort. Cultural and trade sharing between two centers. Common features between the two cities found in architecture and relief sculpture include warrior pillars, quadrilateral-winged rattlesnakes, subjects' clothes, chacmools  (basins of sacrifice as a resurrected man), atlantides (support as standing men Column). Representations of some animals, represented by a tzompantli (sacrificial skull rack), Tlaloc (rain god) incense burner, and the personal name Glyph which are present at both sites but which are not Maya.
According to the two-period view, the American historian George K├╝bler has divided the buildings of Chichen Itza into three distinct phases: 800 before CE, 800 to 1050 CE, and 1050–1200 CE. Kubler states that a later stage saw many buildings on the site in addition to ornate narrative relief. It has also been suggested that due to different styles of architecture, dating back to that found in Toltec capital Tula, it may have actually been Chichen Itza, which influenced Toltec rather than reversing it. The exact relationship between the two cultures has yet to be definitively revealed, and certainly Chichen Itza has other Mesoamerican (but non-Toltec) architectural and artistic features that evidence an influence from other sites such as Xochicalco and El Tajin.
Chichen Itza fell in rapid decline from 1200 CE, and Mayapan became the new capital. However, unlike many other sites, Chichen Itza never disappeared from memory, and the city was revered as a place of reverence and ancestry during the Postclassic period and pilgrimage and even beyond.
Chichen Itza Map
By-Hobe/Holger Behr (License: Public domain (Original image))

Architecture from Chichen Itza

The first section of Chichen Itza displays several classic Mayan traits. The Temple of Three Lintels, for example, has a chalk mask on each corner. Other structures include two small temples built on raised platforms, known as the Red House and House of Deer, and a pyramid known as the tomb of the High Priest, named for a tomb within it The search is named after him. There is also a 7th century CE Red House, with a blood-stained coup, carving of the chalk god of rain with nunnery and a small temple known as Iglesia, all are classic period structures.

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