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Thursday, July 23, 2020

Ancient Persia


Persia (roughly modern Iran) is one of the oldest inhabited regions of the world. Archaeological sites in the country have established a human settlement 100,000 years ago in the Paleolithic era, with semi-permanent settlements (most likely for hunting parties) dating back to 10,000 BC. The ancient kingdom of Elam in the region was among the most advanced of its time (its oldest settlement, the archaeological site of the Choga Bonut, dated 7200 BCE), parts of which were conquered by the Sumerians before, later entirely The Assyrians. , And then by meds.

One of the largest political and social institutions in the ancient world, after the Middle Kingdom (678–550 BCE), was the Persian Achaemenid Empire (550–330 BCE), conquered by Alexander the Great and later the Seleucid Empire (312– 63 BCE), Parthia (247 BCE-224 CE), and the Sassanian Empire in succession (224 - 651 CE). The Sassanian Empire was the last of the Persian governments to occupy the region before the Muslim Arab conquest of the 7th century AD.

History of Persia

Archaeological discoveries, such as Neanderthal seasonal settlements and implements, trace human development in the region from the Palaeolithic through the Neolithic and Chalcolithic eras. The city of Susa (modern day Shushan), which later became part of Elam and then Persia, was founded in 4395 BC, making it one of the oldest in the world. Although Susa was often equaled with Elam, they were distinct politicians; Although Susa was founded even before the Proto-Elamite period (c. 3200–2700 BCE), it was contemporary with Elamite culture.

The Aryan tribes are believed to have migrated to the region shortly before the 3rd millennium BCE and the country would later be referred to as Ariana and Iran - the land of the Aryans. 'Aryan' should be understood according to the ancient Iranian language which means "noble", "civilized" or "free man" and designating a class of people that has nothing to do with race in any way - Or Caucasians but referencing it Indo-Iranians who in religious works known themselves as Avesta. The interpretation of the term 'Aryan', referring to racial Caucasian, was not advanced until the 19th century AD.

These Aryan tribes were composed of diverse people, known among others as the Allan, Bactrian, Medes, Parthian, and Persian. He brought with him a polytheistic religion associated with the Vedic thought of the Indo-Aryans - those who would settle in northern India - considering dualism and the worship of fire as an incarnation of God. This early Iranian religion considered God Ahura Mazda supreme, along with other deities such as Mithura (Sun God / God of Covenants), Havar Khsata (Sun God), and Anahita (Goddess of Fertility, Health, Water, and Knowledge). Making the rest of the pantheons, among others.

At some point between 1500–1000 BCE, the Persian visionary Zoroaster (otherwise called Zarathustra) asserted awesome disclosure from Ahura Mazda, the reason for human life as the incomparable divine force of equity and order and his adversary. Recognized as choosing sides in an eternal conflict between. Angar Manu, the god of discord and discord. Man was defined by who he wants to act in his favor. The teachings of Zoroaster laid the basis for the Zoroastrianism, which was later adopted by the Persian kingdoms and revealed their culture.

The Persians settled mainly across the Iranian plateau and were established by the 1st millennium BCE. The Medes united under a single chief named Dayaku (known by the Greeks as Dioces, r. 727–675 BC) and established his kingdom in Ecbatana. Dayakukku's grandson, Cyxares (r. 625-585 BCE), would expand the Median territory in modern-day Azerbaijan. In the late 8th century, under their king Achman, the Persians consolidated their control over the mid-western region of the Bakhtiyari Mountains with their capital in Anshan.

The Elamites, as noted, were already established in the region at this time and, most likely, were indigenous people. Their territory was settled east of Ilam in the region of Persia under their king Thieps (son of Achman, r. 675–640 BC), also known as Parsi (Paras, modern Fars), who Will give the name of the tribe they know. Later he extended his control over the Elamite region, and intermarried with the Elamites, and absorbed the culture. Shortly before 640 BCE, Thiप्सes divided his kingdom between his sons Cyrus I (r. 625–600 B.C.E.) and Arachnamnes. Cyrus ruled the northern kingdom with hunger and the Ariansons ruled in the south. Both these states were united in hunger by the rule of Cambyses I (r. 580–559 BCE).
The Medes was the dominant power in the region and was a small vassal state in the Persian kingdom. This circumstance would invert after the fall of the Assyrian Empire in 612 BC, hurried by the battles of Medes and Babylon, who drove a union of others against the weakened Assyrian state. The Medes retained control for the first time until they became Cyrus II (also known as Cyrus the Great, RC 550-), the son of Cambyses I of Persia and the grandson of the Estes of Media (r. 585–550 B.C.E.). 530 B.C.E.). Founded the Achaemenid Empire.

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