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Thursday, July 9, 2020

Ashur: An Assyrian city

Ashur Parthian King
By-Udimu (License: Public domain (Original image))

Ashur (also known as Assur) was an Assyrian city located on a plateau above the Tigris River in Mesopotamia (today known as Qalat Sherkat in northern Iraq). The city was an important center of trade, as it was square on the caravan trade route leading from Mesopotamia to Anatolia and down through the Levant. Its establishment c. 1900 BC On the site of a pre-existing community, built by the Akkadian at some point during the reign of Sargon the Great (2334–2279 BCE).
According to an interpretation of the passage in the Bible Book of Biblical Origins, after the Great Flood, Ashur's name was established by a man named Shem, the son of Shem, who was then found in other important Assyrian cities. More likely is that some time in the third millennium BCE, the city was named Assur after the god of that name; The name of the same god is the root for Assyria. The biblical version of Assyrian origins appears later in the historical record, when the Assyrians accepted Christianity and it is therefore believed to re-interpret their early history more in keeping with their new belief system Was.
Ashur enjoyed the city of Karum Kanesh in Anatolia due to the lucrative trade, it prospered and became the capital of the Assyrian Empire. Even after moving the capital to the cities of Kalhu (Nimrud), then Dur-Sharrukin, and finally Nineveh, remained an important spiritual center for the Ashur. All the great kings (except Sargon II, whose body was lost in battle) were buried in Ashur from the earliest days of the Assyrian Empire to the last, regardless of the capital city. Ashur is listed as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO.

History of Ashur

Archaeological excavations suggest that the site of a site existed at an early site in the third millennium BCE. The exact form and shape of the city is not known. The oldest foundations thus far discovered are beneath the first Ishtar temple, which probably formed the basis for an earlier temple because the people of Mesopotamia usually built the same type of structure on earlier ruins.
The pottery and other artifacts found in situ suggest that Ashur was an important center of trade in the Akkadian Empire and was an outpost in the city of Akkad. Over time, trade between Mesopotamia and Anatolia increased, and Ashur was one of the most important cities in these countries due to its location. The merchants sent their war to Anatolia through caravans and mainly traded in Karum Kanesh.
These profits were largely spent on the renovation and modifications of private houses and public buildings in the city. Through trade, Ashur flourished and expanded, becoming the capital of Assyria by the second millennium BCE. Walls were built around the city to enhance its natural defenses, although these defenses in themselves were quite beneficial.

Flourishing of Ashur

As the city developed, the Assyrians expanded their territory. The Assyrian king Shamshi Adad I (1813–1791 BCE) drove out the invading Amorite tribes and secured the borders of the Ashur and Assyrian lands against further events. The city flourished under the rule of Shamshi Adad I and then fell to the power of Babylon under Hammurabi (1792–1750 BC).
Hammurabi treated the Ashur well and respected the gods and temples but no longer allowed the city to trade with Anatolia. Babylon took over the trade route that had made Ashur rich, and the Assyrian city was forced to trade only with Babylon; This led to a decline in the prosperity of the Ashur and it became a vassal state. When 1750 BC When Hammurabi died, the region was in turmoil and war broke out in the city-states with control over each other. Stability was finally achieved by the Assyrian king Adasi (1726–1691 BCE) but, by that time, the Kingdom of Mitanni had grown into western Anatolia and gradually spread through Mesopotamia, which now made the Ashur a part of its territory having had. The Asuras again formed a vassal kingdom until the rise of Assyrian king Ashur-udbalit I (1353–1318 BCE), to defeat the Mitanni and occupy a large part of their territory.
The Kingdom of Mitanni had suffered greatly since the days of its chief, ever since the Hittite king Suppiluliuma I (1344–1322 BC) conquered them and replaced the Mitanni rulers with Hittite officials. Ashur-Udbali I defeated these Hittite rulers in battle but did not completely relinquish his hold on the region. The later king Adad Nirari I (1307–1275 BCE) conquered the Hittites and took the land of Mitanni to form the first region of a civilian empire. During the rule of Ashur, he led his victorious army across the region and sent loot from his country wins back to the city. The Asuras prospered again and began to develop and expand again. Adad Nirari I commissioned several construction projects in the city and improved the walls. It is from this that Assyria became the city of note famous as the capital of the Assyrian Empire.

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