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Tuesday, June 16, 2020

Ur | One of the Ancient city

By-Spc. Samantha Ciaramitaro (License: Public Domain ( Original image))

Ur was a city in the region of Sumer, South Mesopotamia, which is modern-day Iraq. According to biblical tradition, the city is named after the man who established the first settlement there, Ur, although it has been disputed. The city's other Biblical connection is to the patriarch Abraham, who left UR to settle in the place of Canaan. This claim has also been made by scholars who believe that Abraham's house was in the north in Mesopotamia, near the city of Haran, in a place called Ura, and the authors of the biblical narrative in the Book of Genesis Had confused both.

Whatever its biblical associations might be, Ur was a significant port city on the Persian Gulf, which started, in all likelihood, as a little town in the Ubaid period (5000–4100 BCE) of Mesopotamian history and Was an established city in 3800 BCE, inhabited until 450 BCE. The Biblical associations of Ur made it famous in modern times, but it was an important urban center long before biblical narratives were written and highly regarded in their time.

The Old Period and Quarrying

This site 1922 AD. Became famous when Sir Leonard Wooley excavated the ruins and discovered that he claimed to have found evidence of the Great Flood, The Great Death Pit (an elaborate tomb complex), the Royal Tombas, and, much more important than that, . Described in the Book of Genesis (this claim was later maligned but continues to find supporters). In its time, Ur was a city of enormous size, scope and opulence, which removed its vast wealth from its position on the Persian Gulf and allowed this trade with countries far away from India. The present site of the ruins of Ur is much inland compared to the time when the city flourished due to the silt of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers.

From the beginning, Ur was an important trading center, located at a critical point, where the Tigris and Euphrates ran across the Persian Gulf. Archaeological excavations have confirmed that, Ur had plenty of wealth and civilians enjoyed levels of comfort unknown in other Mesopotamian cities.

Like the other great urban complexes in the area, the city began as a small village, most likely headed by a priest or priest-king. The king of the first dynasty, Mesannepadda, is known only through Sumerian king lists and inscriptions on the crafts found in the tombs of Ur.
It may be noted that there were four kings of the Second Dynasty, but nothing is known about them, their achievements or the history during this period. Early Mesopotamian writers did not consider it worthwhile to record the works of mortals and preferred to relate human achievements to the work and desire of the gods. Ancient hero-kings such as Gilgamesh or those who performed amazing feats such as Etana were worthy of record, but mortal kings did not receive the same level of concern.

Renaissance of Sumerian

Ur-Nammu wrote the first codified law and order of the land, 300 years before Hammurabi of Babylon, he wrotes, and administered his realm as per a patriarchal hierarchy in which he guides his children to prosperity and health. Used to continue . The creation and trade of the great jigrat flourished under Ur-Nammu. The art and technique for which the Sumerians were most famous was encouraged in Ur during this time.
Scholar Paul Kriwaczek believes that to make such a patriarchal system of government a success, people must believe that their ruler is more powerful than they are in the same way that children believe their father. To this day, it seems, Ur-Nammu presented his subjects in harmony with the king Sargon and Naram-Sin to encourage the population to follow them in pursuit of excellence.

His son, Shulgi, went even further in an effort to surpass his father's achievements. An example of this is his famous race, when in order to impress his people and separate himself from his father, Shulgi ran 100 miles (160.9 kilometers) between the religious center of Nippur and the capital of Ur again. In one day - Order of crimes on festivals in both cities. Shulgi continued his father's policies, improved him when he saw fit, and is considered the greatest king of the Third Dynasty of Ur for the civilization of heights reached during his reign.

Many of his construction projects had a wall that was 155 miles (250 kilometers) along the border of the territory of Sumer to house the Martú (also known as Tidnum) tribes of the Barbaric tribes, which Most are recognized in his Bible for modern readers. Designation as Amorites. The Shulgi wall was maintained by his sons, grandchildren and great grandchildren, but they could not hold the tribes back to the borders.

The wall was too long to be properly maintained and, as it was not anchored at either end, the invaders marched around it and passed the barrier. 1750 BC In Elam's neighboring kingdom broke the wall, sacked Ur and took the last king as a prisoner. The Amorites, who had already found their way around the wall, merged with the Sumerian population and thus, Sumerian culture came to an end with the fall of Ur.

Fall or Decline of Ur

Ur remained a city of importance in the Old Babylonian period (c. 2000–1600 BCE) and was considered a center of learning and culture. According to the historian Gwendolyn Leick, "the heirs of Ur, the kings of Isin and Larsa, were willing to show their respect to the gods of Ur by repairing the desolate temples" (180) and the Kassite king, who later conquered. This region was also followed by the Assyrian rulers.

The city was inhabited in the early part of the Achaemenid period (550–330 BCE), but due to climate change and greater land use, more and more people migrated to northern regions towards the lands of Mesopotamia or the south of Canaan (patriarch Abraham, Some claim, among them, as mentioned earlier). Ur gradually dwindled in importance, as the Persian Gulf spread further and further south from the city and eventually fell into ruin around 450 BCE.

1625 AD The area was buried under sand until visited by Pietro della Valle, who gave strange inscriptions on the bricks (later identified as the cuneiform script) and images on artifacts that were later found on the property or signature letters. Recognition was used as the cylinder seal used for identification. The first excavation of the site in 1853 –1854 CE was carried out in the interests of the British Museum by John George Taylor, who noted several grave complexes and concluded that it may have been a Babylonian necropolis.
The definitive excavation of the ruins of Ur was carried out between 1922–1934 CE by Sir Leonard Wooley working on behalf of the British Museum and the University of Pennsylvania. Tutankhamun's famous mausoleum was discovered by Howard Carter in 1922 and Wooley was expecting an equally impressive discovery. In Ur he saw the tombs of sixteen kings and queens, including Queen Pyabi (also known as Shub-Ad) and her treasures. The Great Death Pit, named after Wooley, was the largest of those who defecated in the open and in it, "Wolle found six armed guards and 68 serving women. They wore gold and silver ribbons in their hair, Except for a woman who was still asleep with a silver ribbon in her hand, before she could bear the emotion of gold, she groaned painfully and carried her away with her master (Bertmann, 36).

Wooley also highlighted the Royal Standard of Ur, which celebrated the conquest of its enemies in battle and the city in celebration, which the people enjoyed. In an attempt to pull off Carter's victory in the discovery of Tutankhamun's tomb, Wooley claimed that he had found evidence on the Ur of the Bible Flood, but notes taken by his assistant Max Mallowan, later revealed, not to the flood site The way a world-wide deluge was supported and was more in keeping with the regular floods caused by the Tigris and Euphrates rivers.

Further excavations in Ur from Wooley's time have confirmed Mallowan's notes and despite consistent beliefs to the contrary, no evidence from the Bible supporting the Great Flood story has been found in Ur nor elsewhere in Mesopotamia.
The ruins of Ur are today an important archaeological site that continues to produce significant artefacts to overcome the troubles of the region. The Great Ziggurat of Ur rises from the plains above the mud-brick ruins of the once great city, and as Bertman suggests, one of them relates to the past when Ur was the center of commerce and trade, which was deified by the gods was preserved, and flourishing among fertile fields.

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