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Monday, June 8, 2020

The Ancient Sumer| History



Sumer was the southernmost region of ancient Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq and Kuwait) generally considered the cradle of civilization. 'Sumer' name comes from Akkadian, which is the language north of Mesopotamia, and its means that "land of civilized kings". The Sumerians called themselves "black-headed people" and their land, in the cuneiform script, was simply "the land" or "the land of the black-headed people", and in the Biblical book of Genesis, Sumer is known as the Shinar is.

As per the Sumerian lord list, when the gods first gave people the fundamental presents for the development of society, they did as such by setting up the city of Eridu in the territory of Sumer. While the Sumerian city of Uruk is considered to be the oldest city in the world, ancient Mesopotamians believed it was Eridu and it was here that the order was established and civilization began.

The Kings of Sumerians

As per the researcher Samuel Noah Kramer, "the main leader of Sumer, whose deeds are recorded, if just expressed to sum things up, is a lord named Etana of Kish, who most likely ascended the throne long ago. He is described in the third millennium BC King List, who had settled all the lands "(Sumerian, 43). The Sumerian King List is a cuneiform document written by a scribe of the city of Lagash, Which dates back to around 2100 BCE, listing all the kings of the region and their achievements in an attempt to show continuity of order in society.the beginning of civilization.

As the people of Mesopotamia in general and Sumerians in particular believed that civilization was the result of the triumph of the gods over anarchy, the list was believed to legitimize the rule of a king named Utu-Hegal  of Uruk (r.c. 2100 BCE) in a long line of area rulers showing them as the most recent. Etana is famous for the myth of a man who ascends to heaven on an eagle's back and, like the other kings mentioned in the list (Dumuzi and Gilgamesh among them) was known for supernatural feats and valor.

Utu-Hegal, it is thought, was trying to relate himself to such earlier hero-kings through the creation of the king list. Since the Mesopotamians accepted that the gods set everything in motion, and people were made as co-workers with the gods to keep up arrange and forestall turmoil, the earliest scholars of the region's history focused more on the relationship between the rulers and their gods.
Writing is the history of human achievements is considered a matter of little importance to these authors and, as a result, the early history of Sumer has been cut from a written tradition from more archaeological and geological records and much information is still available to modern scholars.

Colonisation of Sumerians

At whatever point Sumerians was first colonized in the area, by 3600 BCE they created the idea of wheel, composing, sail pontoon, farming procedures, for example, water system, and the city (despite the fact that China and India also claim to be the first  cities' world). It is generally accepted that the first important cities in the world rose in Sumer and the most important cities are were Eridu, Uruk, Ur, Larsa, Isin, Adab, Kullah, Lagash, Nippur, and Kish.

The city of Uruk is considered the first true city in the world. It has been noted, again by Kremer, that these names are not Sumerian, but come from the Ubaid people and were therefore at least established as villages, long before c. 5000 BC. Some other cities in Sumer were Sippar, Shuruppak, Bad-tibira, Girsu, Umma, Urukag, Nina, and Kissura. All were varying of different sizes and dimensions  with Uruk was its largest and most powerful.
With the establishment of the cities of Sumer, their history dates from about 5000 BCE to 1750 BCE, when Sumer "ceased to exist as a Sumerian people" (Kramer) after the invasions by the Elamites and the Amavites. The Ubaid period (c. 5000–4100 BCE) was followed by the Uruk period (4100–2900 BCE), in which cities began to emerge on the landscape and the city of Uruk rose to prominence. Although the period is named for the 'first city' of Uruk, Eridu was considered the first city by the Sumerians, as previously mentioned.

Trade with foreign lands was firmly established at this time and writing evolved from pictograms to cuneiform scripts. It is believed that trade was the main mover in the development of writing because now there must have been some means for accurate, long-distance, communication between Sumer merchants and their agents. The monarchy also arose at this time and the city-states of Sumer came to be ruled by a single emperor, assisted by a council of elders (consisting of both women and men). The later kings of Etana were Semites, not Sumerians, as is known by their names, such as the Enmebaraggesi of Kish. After the passing of the rule of eight kings, it is not the case that Sumerian names started appearing in the kings list.



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