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Sunday, June 7, 2020

History of Babylonian Civilization

Origin of Babylon Civilization

After the disintegration of the Akkadian Empire, the Sumerians rose in the late 22nd century BC with the Third Dynasty of the Ur, and drove out the Barbaric Gutians from southern Mesopotamia. The Sumerian "Ur-III" dynasty was finally introduced in 2002 BC. Broke into the hands of another Semitic people, the Elamites. The conflict between the Amorites (Western Semitic nomads) and the Assyrians continued until Sargon I (1920–1881 BC) succeeded as king in Assyria and withdrew the Assyrians from the region, leaving the Amorites under control.
One of these Amorite dynasties took place in 1894 BC. Founded the Kingdom-State of the City of Babylon, which would eventually take over others and create a short-lived First Babylonian Empire, also known as the Old Babylonian period.
A chieftain named Sumuabum took it from the neighboring Mesopotamia city state of the then small town of Kazallu in Babylon. However, Sumuabum is not given the title of king.

Army of Babylonian Civilization

Babylon remained a small territory for a century after it was established until the reign of its sixth Amorite ruler, Hammurabi (1792–1750 BC). He was a skilled ruler, who established a centralized bureaucracy with taxation. Hammurabi liberated Babylon from the dominion of Elamite, and then conquered the whole of southern Mesopotamia, bringing stability to the region and the name of Babylonia.

Babylonia's powers under Hammurabi were all around restrained, and he had the able to attack modern-day Iran in the east and overcome the pre-Iranian Elamites, Gutians, and Kassites. In the west, Hammurabi enjoyed military success against the Semitic states of Levant (modern Syria), including the mighty kingdom of Mari. Hammurabi entered into a long battle with the old Assyrian Empire for control of Mesopotamia and the Near East. Assyria had extended control over parts of Asia Minor from the 21st century BCE, and from the late 19th century BCE also asserted itself in northeastern Syria and central Mesopotamia. After decades of conflict with the Assyrian king Ishme-Dagan, Hammurabi forced his successor, Mut-Ashkur, to pay tribute to Babylon. In 1751 BC, Babylonia was thus given control over the centuries-old Hattian and Hurrian colonies of Assyria in Asia Minor.
One of the most important works of this first dynasty of Babylon was in 1754 BC. There was a compilation of the law of the law, called the Code of Hammurabi, which echoed and reformed the earlier written laws of Sumer, Akkad and Assyria. It is one of the oldest perimeter writings of significant length in the world. The Code contains 282 laws, with enhanced penalties based on social status, "one eye for one eye, one tooth for another tooth". About one-half of the code deals with contract matters. A third of the code addresses domestic and family relations issues.

From 3000 BCE until the rule of Hammurabi, the major social and religious are center of southern Mesopotamia had been the old city of Nippur, where Lord Enlil ruled. However, with the ascent of Hammurabi, this honor was moved to Babylon, and Dev Marduk rose to supremacy (with the god Asura remaining the essential divinity in Assyria). The city of Babylon is known as the "holy city", where any legitimate ruler of southern Mesopotamia was to be crowned. Much of what Hammurabi had done was already a modest administrative town in a large city, dramatically increasing its size and population, and conducting many impressive architectural works.

Fall of Babylonian Civilization

Despite Hammurabi's various military successes, southern Mesopotamia had no natural, defensive borders, making it vulnerable to attack. After Hammurabi's death, his empire began to disintegrate rapidly. Under his successor Samasu-Iluna (1749–1712 BCE), a native Akkadian king in the far south of Mesopotamia, called Ilum-ma-ili, became the Sealand dynasty; It remained free from Babylon for the next 272 years.

Both the Babylonian and their Amorite rulers were driven north from Assyria by an Assyrian-Akkadian governor named Pujur-Sin. 1740 BC Very little Amorite rule survived in Babylon, Abi-Eshuh, the successor of Samshu-iluna, made a futile attempt to recapture the Sealand dynasty for Babylon, but was defeated at the hands of King Damaqi-Ilishu II. By the end of his reign, Babylonia had shrunk to a smaller and relatively weaker nation at its base.

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