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Sunday, June 14, 2020

Egyptian Technology| Engineering, Construction, Mathematics & Astronomy


Ancient Egypt was a very mysterious and have amazing technologies and skills. There Great temples and monuments of ancient Egypt fascinate and amaze people in modern days. The wide size and scope of structures such as the Great Pyramid at Giza or the Temple of Amoon at Karnak or the Colossi of Memoni are virtually awe-inspiring and naturally encourage questions about how they were built. All Egyptian landscapes have huge structures, thousands of years old, which have given rise to many different theories as to their construction. While many important questions remain unanswered, the simplest explanation for many can be found in ancient Egyptian inscriptions, texts, wall paintings, tomb inscriptions, art, and artifacts: the ancient Egyptians had an extraordinary command of science and technology.
Ancient monuments and grand temples, the ancient Egyptians invented many items, which are easily available in modern day. Paper and ink, cosmetics, toothbrushes and toothpastes, even the ancestors of the modern breath mint, were all invented by the Egyptians. Additionally, he progressed in almost every field of knowledge, from the manufacture of simple household items to beer brewing, engineering and construction, to agriculture and architecture, medicine, astronomy, art and literature. Although he did not command the wheel until the arrival of the Haxos during the Second Intermediate Period of Egypt (1917 - c. 1570 BCE), his technical skills soon become apparent as early as the Predynastic Period (C-6000-C) . . 3550 BC) in the construction of Mustaba tombs, artefacts and tools. As civilization advanced, his knowledge and skills, until the time of the Ptolemaic dynasty (323–30 BCE), until Egypt was the last to rule Egypt before occupying Rome, created one of the most influential cultures. Was the ancient world.

Egyptians Construction & Engineering skill

The great temples of ancient Egypt originated from the same technical skill that resembles the small scale of household goods. The central value observed in making any of these goods or structures was attention to detail. Egyptians are noted in many aspects of their culture as a very conservative society, and this adherence to a certain way of accomplishing the task can be clearly seen in the construction of pyramids and other monuments. For example, the creation of an obelisk always involves the exact process performed in exactly the same way. The excavation and transport of obelisks have not been well documented (though how monumental monuments were raised) and do not show strict adherence to a standard procedure.
Djoser's step pyramid was successfully built according to the presuppositions of the Visitor Imhotep (c. 2667–2600 BCE), and when his plans were diverted by Sneferu during the Old Kingdom (c. 2613– c. 2181 BCE). As a result, the so-called 'demolished pyramid' was built in the medium. Sneferu returned to Imhotep's original engineering plans for his next projects and was able to build his Bent Pyramid and Red Pyramid at Dasara, furthering the art of pyramid construction which is inscribed at the Great Pyramid at Giza.
The technical skills required for the construction of the Great Pyramid still revels scholars in the present day. To accomplish this, the vizier would assign responsibility to subordinates who would delegate further tasks to others. The bureaucracy of the Old Kingdom of Egypt set the paradigms of the rest of the country's history in accounting for every aspect of a building project and ensured that each stage was proceeding according to plan. Later in the Old Kingdom, Veni, better known as the governor of the South, leaves an inscription detailing how he traveled to Elephantine for granite for a false door to the pyramid and to bring supplies for further construction and dug five canals for two boats (Lewis,33). Records like Veni show the immense amount of effort required in building the monuments they find in Egypt today. Giza has many inscriptions relating to supplies and difficulties in building pyramids but no definite explanation of the practical means by which they were built.
A much more theory has been proposed by engineer Robert Carson which suggests that the power of water was used. It is clearly confirmed that the water table of the Giza Plateau is quite high and was high during the period of construction of the Great Pyramid. To help lift the stones up the ramp to their desired location, Carson claims that water can be drained through the pump and pressurized. Egyptian scientists still debate the purpose of the shaft inside the Great Pyramid, with some claiming that they held a spiritual purpose (so that the king's soul could ascend to heaven) and others away from the construction. Mistrologist Miroslav Werner states that these questions cannot be answered at last because we have no definitive texts or archaeological evidence to point in one direction or another.
While this may happen, Carson's claim for the power of water in construction makes more sense than many others (such as when stones are being used to transport, apparently, Egyptian use or cranes There is no evidence to the knowledge of) and it is known that the Egyptians were familiar with the concept of the pump. King Senusret of the Middle Kingdom (c. 1971–1926 BC) drained the lake in the center of the Fayyum district during his reign, using canals and pumps to divert resources from the Nile River in other periods. Ukranian engineer Mikhail Volgin also cites water for the construction of the Great Pyramid and claims that the pyramids were not actually designed as tombs, but were immense waterfall depots. He points to the lack of any mummies found in the pyramids, their size, and the high water table of the Giza Plateau as evidence of their claim.

Astronomy & Mathematics of Egypt

Astronomy was play important role to ancient Egyptians on two levels: spiritual and practical. Egypt was considered an ideal reflection of the land of the gods and as a mirror image of one's life on earth. This duality is evident in Egyptian culture in every aspect and is inscribed in obelisks that were always raised in pairs and believed to reflect a divine pair appearing in heaven at the same time. The stars told stories of the gods' achievements and trials, but also indicated the passage of time and seasons.
On a more practical level, stars can tell one when it was going to rain, when it was time to sow or reap the harvest, and even make important decisions such as building houses or temples or starting a business venture. Was the best time. Astronomical observations led to astrological interpretations that were probably adopted through trade from sources in Mesopotamia. However, a strictly astronomical examination of the night sky was interpreted in terms of practicality and was recorded in mathematical calculations measuring weeks, months, and years. Although the calendar was invented by the ancient Sumerians, the concept was adapted and improved by the Egyptians.
According to many Egyptian scientists, mathematics in Egypt was completely practical. For example, Rosalie David claims, "Mathematics originally served utilitarian purposes in Egypt and does not appear to have been considered a theoretical science" (217). However, ancient writers such as Herodotus and Pliny have consistently mentioned Egyptians as the source of theoretical mathematics, and they are not the only source on it. Many ancient writers point to philosophers such as Diogenes Le
rtius and the sources between them, Pythagoras and Plato, who studied in Egypt and the importance of mathematical knowledge in their belief systems. Plato considered the study of geometry necessary for clarity of mind and thought that he had derived this concept from Pythagoras who first learned it from Egyptian priests. In his book Stollen Legacy: The Egyptian Origins of Western Philosophy, scholar George G.M. James argues that Western philosophical concepts are falsely attributable to the Greeks who developed only the ideas of Egypt, and the same paradigm may be for the study of mathematics.
There is no doubt that the Egyptians used mathematics on a daily basis for far more worldly purposes than the pursuit of the ultimate truth. Mathematics was used in record keeping, in developing the schematic for machines such as water pumps, in calculating tax rates, and in designing and designing sites for building projects. Mathematics was used on a very simple level in the medical arts to write prescriptions for patients and to mix materials for drugs or medicine.

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