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Tuesday, June 2, 2020

Egyptian Hieroglyphs: A writing format of Egypt


Egyptian hieroglyphs were one of the writing systems used by ancient Egyptians to represent their language. In view of their pictorial style, Herodotus and other significant Greeks believed that Egyptians hieroglyphs were to somewhat scared, so they alluded to them as 'scared writing'. Thus, the word hieroglyph comes from the Greek hierro 'sacred' and glypho 'writing'. In ancient Egyptian language, hieroglyphs were called medu netzer, 'words of the gods' because it was believed that writing was an invention of the gods.
The script was composed of three basic types of signs: logograms, representing words; Phonograms represent sounds; And the determinant is placed at the end of the word to help clarify its meaning. As a result, the number of signs used by the Egyptians was much larger than alphabetical systems, initially in more than a thousand different hieroglyphs and later reduced to around 750 during the Middle Kingdom (2055–1650 BCE). In 1820 CE, the French Jean-François Champion famously described hieroglyphs with his triple text of hieroglyphics, demotic and Greek, using Rosetta Stone in the 2nd century BCE. Egyptian hieroglyphs are read either in columns from top to bottom or from right side or in rows from left side.

Born of Egyptian Hieroglyphs

Like most ancient scripts, the origins of Egyptian hieroglyphs have been poorly understood. However, there are several hypotheses that have been put forward. One of the most concrete ideas claims that they are derived from rock paintings created by prehistoric hunting communities living west of the Nile River, who were clearly familiar with the concept of communication through visual imagery. Some of the motifs depicted on these rock images are also found on the pottery of pre-ancestral cultures in Egypt. It is particularly marked during the Naqda II period (c. 3500–3200 BCE). Ships were buried in tombs, and it is also in the tombs of the Naqda III / Dynasty 0 period (c. 3200–3000 BCE) that early safely dated examples of Egyptian hieroglyphs have been found.
In Abydos' cemetery U, tomb j, a member of the local elite was buried around 3100 BCE. He was a wealthy man, probably a ruler, and he was buried with several goods, including hundreds of jars, an ivory sceptre and other items. Many of these objects were looted and we know about them due to the approximately 150 surviving labels, which contain the earliest known writing in Egypt.

How Egyptians are use Hieroglyphs

The labels found in the Abydos U-J mausoleum were engraved on small rectangles made of wood or ivory with a hole in their corner to attach them to different items. Other engraved surfaces such as ceramic, metal, and stone (both flakes and stela) are also known from early royal tombs.
Papyrus, the dominant portable writing medium in Egypt, appears during the First Dynasty (c. 3000–2890 B.C.E.): the earliest surviving example we know of is an empty roll found in the tomb of Hemka, an official of the King's Den is. Egyptian scribes commonly used papyrus and other alternative writing surfaces, including writing boards made of wood. By the end of the eighteenth dynasty (1550–1295 BCE), these boards were covered with a layer of white plaster, which could be washed and remodeled, providing a convenient reusable surface. Instances of clay tablets, a famous medium in Mesopotamia going back to the Old Kingdom (2686–2160 BCE), were found in Dakhla Oasis, a long way from the various locations from which papyrus was produced. Bone, metal and leather were other types of materials used for writing. Living inscriptions on leather dating have also been found in the New Kingdom (1550–1069 BC), but leather preservation is worse than papyrus, so there is no certainty as to how leather is used extensively it was done.
Inscriptions found in Abydos display a wide variety of information: some of them are numbers, others are believed to indicate the origin of the goods, and show administrative information related to economic activities controlled by the most complex ruler. In tombs from Dynasty 0, signs found in pottery and stone vessels (and on the labels attached to them) were used to indicate ownership of their contents, probably associated with taxation and other accounting data. . Signs on pottery vessels become increasingly standardized and as these pot-marks are assumed to convey information about the ship's contents (including their provenances), this trend increases the complexity of record keeping and administrative control.



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