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Wednesday, June 24, 2020

Cuneiform: An Ancient form of writing



Cuneiform is a system of writing developed by the ancient Sumers of Mesopotamia c. 3500–3000 BC. It is considered the most important of the many cultural contributions of the Sumerians and is the greatest of the Sumerian cities of Uruk, which advanced the writings of the cuneiform c. 3200 BC.
The name comes from the Latin-language cuneus because of the wedge-shape style of writing 'wedge'. In the cuneiform, a deliberately cut composing known as a stylus is squeezed into soft clay to make wedge-like impressions that mean word-marks (pictograms) and, later, phonograms or 'word-ideas' ( Closer to the understanding of modern times) of a 'word'). All great Mesopotamian civilizations utilized the cuneiform until it was deserted for the letters in order content eventually after 100 BCE.
When ancient cuneiform tablets of Mesopotamia were discovered and interpreted in the late 19th century, they would literally change human understanding of history. Prior to their discovery, the Bible was considered the oldest and authoritative book in the world. The brilliant scholar and translator George Smith (l.1840–1876 CE) changed his understanding of history with his translation of The Epic of Gilgamesh in 1872 AD. This interpretation permitted translation of other cuneiform tablets, which overturned the conventional comprehension of the Biblical version of history and prepared for insightful, target investigations of history to push ahead.

Proto-cuneiform

The earliest cuneiform tablets, known as proto-cuneiform, were pictorial, on the grounds that the subjects they tended to were increasingly concrete and obvious (one ruler, one fight, one flood) yet created in multifaceted nature as the subject. The object became more abstract (willful) gods, the pursuit of immortality). By 3000 BCE the representations had become more simplified and the strokes of stylus-determined words (honor) rather than the stylus's word-concepts (honorable person). Written language was further refined through ribus, which separated out the phonetic value of a certain symbol to express grammatical relations and syntax to determine meaning.

Literature in Cuneiform

Incredible abstract works of Mesopotamia, for example, Atrahsis, The Descent of Inna, The Myth of Etna, The Enuma Eilish and Epic of Gilgamesh were completely written in cuneiform and until the mid-19th century, when men like George were Were completely unknown. Smith, Reverend Edward Hinks (l. 1792–1866 CE), Jules Oppert (l.1825–1905 CE), and Henry Criswick Rawlinson (l.1810–1895 CE) erased the language and translated it into English.
Rawlinson's translations of Mesopotamian texts were first presented in 1837 AD to the Royal Asiatic Society of London and then in 1839 AD. 1846 AD He worked with archaeologist Austin Henry Laird at Nineveh's excavations and was responsible for the earliest translations from the library of the Ashurbanipal discovered at the site. Edward Hinks focused on the Persian cuneiform, establishing his patterns and identifying vowels among his other contributions. Jules Oppert identified the origin of the cuneiform and established the grammar of the Assyrian cuneiform. George Smith was responsible for understanding the Epic of Gilgamesh and, in 1872 AD, the Mesopotamian version of the Flood story, which until then was considered to be the origin of the Biblical Book of Genesis. All texts of the Bible were believed to be up to the original uniform. Was disbanded. The Fall of Man and the Great Flood were understood to be literal events in human history that were written by the author of God to the author (or author) of Genesis, but were now recognized as Mesopotamian myths, which The Hebrew texts were embellished in The Myth of Etana and the Atrahasis. The Biblical story of the Garden of Eden can now be understood as a myth derived from The Enuma Elish and other Mesopotamian creations. The Book of Job, far from being an actual historical account of a person's unjust suffering, can now be recognized as a literary work related to the Mesopotamian tradition after the discovery of the first Ludlul-Bel-Nimeqi text which is a similar one Is related to the story.
The concept of a dead and resurrected deity who moves to the underworld and then returns was presented as a novel concept in the New Testament gospels, now expressed as a verse for the first time in the literature of Mesopotamia had gone. . Many of the many biblical narratives, including the Gospel, can now be read in light of the discovery of Mesopotamian Naru literature, which took a figure from history and reclaimed an important moral and cultural message for its Elaborated on achievements. According to this time, as mentioned, the Bible is considered the oldest book in the world, Solomon's song was considered the oldest love poem; But all this changed with the discovery and interpretation of cuneiform. The oldest love poem in the world is now recognized as The Song of Shoo-Sin which was given in 2000 BCE, before The Song of Solomon was written. These advances in understanding were made by 19th-century archaeologists and scholars sent to Mesopotamia to authenticate biblical stories with physical evidence. Along with other Assyriologists (among them, T.G. Pinch and Edwin Norris), Rosslyn vowed to develop the study of the Mesopotamian language, and the cuneiform inscriptions of ancient Babylon and Assyria, among his other works, the standard reference on the subject after his publication. became. In the CE of 1860 and respected scholars work in the modern day.
In 1876 AD, at the age of 36, of George Smith, regarded as a first rank intelligence. Died in an expedition to Nineveh. Smith, a self-taught translator of cuneiform, made his first contribution to understanding ancient writing in his early writings. His death in the twentieth century, and at such a young age, has long been considered a significant loss for progress in the translation of cuneiform in the 19th century CE.
The literature of Mesopotamia informed all written works that came later. Mesopotamian motifs can be traced back to Egyptian, Greek, and Roman works and are echoed in the present day through biblical narratives, which they inform. When George Smith reduced the cuneiform, he dramatically changed the way humans would understand its history.
The acknowledged rendition of the creation of the world, the first sin, and numerous different lessons by which individuals were experiencing their lives were completely tested by the disclosure of Mesopotamia - largely Sumerian - literature. Since the discovery and interpretation of cuneiform, the history of civilization has never been the same.

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