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Sunday, June 21, 2020

Asuka Period (538 CE to 710 CE)

The Asuka period (Asuka Jidai) of ancient Japan covers the period from 538 CE to 710 CE, and is further from the Kofun period (c. 250–538 CE), hence the latter of the Yamato period (c. 250– 710 CE). For some scholars the period begins in 593 CE, and for art historians the end of the Asuka period dates to 645 CE. Japan's contact with other regional powers increased in this period, the rule of famous figures such as Prince Shotoku, the establishment of the powerful Fujiwara clan, and the adoption of Buddhism. This was followed by the Nara period (710–794 CE).

Asuka's Connection with China & Korea

Significant cultural ties were made with the Baekje (Pakche) state of Korea during the Asuka period, contact had already been established with the Korean peninsula from the 4th century CE, especially from the Confederation of Korea. Advanced Baekje culture was exported through teachers, scholars, and artists traveling to Japan, and with them came elements of Chinese culture, such as classic Confucian texts, but elements of Korean culture, e.g. Seen in wooden buildings built by Koreans. Architect. The exact relationship between Korea and Japan in this period is controversial, but the Baekje authorities seem to have held important positions in the Yamato government and may have found themselves well along the royal line, particularly with the Soga clan . Chinese impact was likewise found in the drawing of a constitution in 604 CE, the Seventeen Article Constitution (Jushichijo-kenpo), which unified the legislature and accentuated both Buddhist and Confucian principles, especially the importance of harmony (wa). Prince Shotoku is credited with creating the Constitution.
Perhaps the most important, and certainly the most durable foreign cultural influence of all, was the introduction of Buddhism into Japan traditionally in 552 CE in the 6th century BC. It was formally adopted by Emperor Yomei and supported by Prince Shotoku, who was built many of the temples, made a collection of artists to make Buddhist works of art and who were students of its teachings themselves. Buddhism was generally welcomed by Japan's elite (barring early resistance from the pre-Shinto mononobe and Nakatomi clans) as it changed Japan's cultural status as a developed nation in the eyes of its powerful neighbors Korea and China Had helped to raise Shotoku also sent official embassies from China to c.607 CE and afterward throughout the 7th century CE.
Relations with Japan's neighbors were not always cordial. Silla State, a longtime rival of Baekje in the Korean Peninsula, eventually defeated his neighbor in 660 AD with the help of a huge Chinese Tang naval force. A rebel Baekje force persuaded Japan to send 800 ships to aid its efforts to regain its kingdom under the command of Abe no Hirafu, but the combined force was defeated in the Battle of Baekgang (Hakusonko) , At the mouth of Geum/Paekchon river 663 BC Due to the success of the Unified Silla Kingdom, another wave of Japanese immigrants collapsed and entered Japan from the Baekje and Goguryeo states.

History of Asuka

The Asuka period derives its name from the capital of the time, Asuka, located in the northern Nara province. In 645 CE the capital was transferred to Naniwa, and between 694 and 710 CE it was to Fujiwarakyo. At the end of the period, in 710 CE, the capital moved again, this time to Heijokyo (aka Nara).
This period sees the first firmly established historical emperor (as opposed to mythological or mythological rulers), the emperor Kimmei. In the royal line the 29th and ruled from 531 or 539 CE to 571 CE. However, the most important ruler of this period was Queen Suiko and her regent Prince Shotoku. The prince was the second son of the emperor Yomei (r. 585–587 CE), and he ruled from Suiko until his death in 594 CE to 622 CE. Shotoku, also known as Umayado no Miko, needs to reform the government, eliminate corruption from its roots, and reduce the system of officials who gain office through inheritance, and more with China, it is credited with encouraging relationships.
The following major political occasion of the Asuka time frame happened in 645 CE when the founder of the Fujiwara clan (Fujiwara-shi), Fujiwara na Kamatari (then known as Nakatomi) carried out a coup that took power from the then chief Soga clan (Soga-shi). Soga had Korean origins and had occupied the government since 587 AD. The new government was then redesigned along Chinese lines in a progression of changes known as the Taika change (Taika no Kishin), wherein land was nationalized, charges had to be paid in exchange for labor , Social ranks were reclassified, civil service entrance examinations were introduced, law codes were written, and the absolute power of the emperor was established. Prince Naka Na Oe became Emperor Tenjin, and Kamatari was made his senior minister and given the surname Fujiwara. This was the beginning of one of Japan's most powerful clans that would monopolize the government during the Heian period (79485 CE). The Jinshin incident of 671–672 CE was a small but bloody internal dispute between the ruling classes which was disputed after the successor. Death of Emperor Tenji. Subsequently, the new emperor Temmu (r. 672–686 CE) took the opportunity to prune the extended royal family so that only his descendants and his wife Jito (r. 686–697 CE) could claim any rights. Royal throne. In 685 CE, Temmu appointed his own followers to key positions within the state bureaucracy, preparing an army, and prohibiting any other citizens from carrying weapons. Fujiwarakyo was chosen as the first proper Japanese capital, which had a palace in the Chinese style and built roads in a regular grid pattern. At the end of this period, the first coins of Japan, Wado Caiho, began in 708 AD.

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