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Saturday, June 6, 2020

Assyrian Dynasty's History


The foundations of the Assyrian dynasty can be traced to Zulilu, who are said to have been ancestors of Shalmaneser after Bel-Kap-Kapu (c. 1900 BCE). The city-state of Ashur emerged prominently in northern Mesopotamia. Establishment of trade colonies in Cappadocia. King Shamshi-Adad I (1813–1791 BCE) expanded the domain of Asuras by defeating the Mari kingdom, thus creating the first Assyrian state.

With the rise of Hammurabi of Babylonia (c. 1728–1686 BCE) and his alliance with Mari, conquered Assyria and was reduced to a vassal state of Babylonian.

 Assyrian Empire: Middle Period


There is little information about the direct successors of Tiglath-Pileser, and it is with Ashurnasirpal II (883–858 BCE) that our knowledge of Assyrian history continues. The Assyrian Empire again extended every which way, and the royal residences, sanctuaries, temples and different structures worked by Ashurnasirpal II take the stand concerning the significant improvement of wealth and art. Nimrud (also known as the Biblical city of Calah or Kalakh) became the emperor's favorite abode, also distinguished among the Assyrian conquerors for their rebellious cruelties. His son, Shalmaneser II (1031–1019 BCE), continued to expand Assyria and even militarized the country.
At the point when Nabu-Nazir ascended the throne of Babylon in 747 BCE, Assyria was in the throes of a revolution. In 746 BC Calah joined the rebels, and the rebel leader Pulu named Tiglath-Pilesar III, seized the crown and inaugurated a new and vigorous policy.
During the Middle Assyrian period, the cities of Ashur, Nimrad and Nineveh emerged prominently in the Tigris Valley. Babylon remained the most important and perhaps the largest city.

Assyrian Neo-Empire

The rise of the Neo-Assyrian Empire under Tiglath-Pileser III (ruled 745–727 BCE) differed in greater consolidation than before. For the first time in history, the idea of   centralization was introduced in politics; The conquered provinces were organized under an elaborate bureaucracy, in which each district paid a definite tribute and provided a legion.

The Assyrian army became a permanent army making an irresistible fighting machine. The Assyrian policy agreed to conquer the known world. With this goal in mind, Tiglath-Pileser III secured the high roads of commerce for the Mediterranean Sea with the Phoenician harbor and then occupied itself with Babylonia. In 729 BC, the pinnacle of his ambition was attained, and he was invested with the sovereignty of Asia in the holy city of Babylon. With its conquest of Israel (745–727 BCE), the first wave of Israeli exile had begun.
Tiglath-Pilesar was committed suicide by his son, Shalmanesar V (reign 727–722 BC), who died sometime later. The throne was seized by General Sargon II (reign 722–705 BC), who conquered the Hittite stronghold of Carchemish and captured Ecbatana. He was seen as the successor to Sargon of Akkad. His son Sennacherib (reigned 704–681 BCE) was a less efficient king who was never crowned in Babylon and eventually the holy city was destroyed. Under his rule, Nineveh was created to be a new center of Assyrian power, famous for its library of cuneiform tablets. His reign, however, was one of terror, and his killing brought relief to both his subjects and enemies.
Esarhaddon (reigned 681–669 BC) dried Sennacherib and restored Babylon to its former glory, making it the second capital of the Assyrian Empire. In 674 BC he sent Assyrian armies to invade Egypt, which was later conquered. Two years later the Egyptians revolted and in his march to deal with the rebellion he fell ill and died.
Ashurbanipal (685–627 BC) made him king of the Assyrian Empire and his brother Samas-sum-yukin was made Viceroy in Babylon. The system failed, because the Samas-Yog-Yukin did not prove popular to the Babylonian people who revolted. After several years of war, during which Egypt gained its independence with the help of mercenaries sent by the Gyges of Lydia, the Babylonian rebellion was put down. Shortly afterwards, Elam revolted, its capital Susa was astonished, and the empire was finally drained of all its resources.
The Scythians and Cimmerians invaded Assyria from the east and north, and when Asharbanpal died, his empire was near collapsing under external pressure. The Babylonian king Nabopolassar (625–605 BCE) finally destroyed Nineveh in 612 BCE with the Cyaxares of Medes (ruled 625–585 BCE), symbolizing the end of the Assyrian Empire.

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