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Sunday, May 10, 2020

History of Indus Valley Civilization

Location of Indus Valley Civilization

The Indus Valley Civilization was a very ancient civilization which was lies on the fertile plains of the Indus River and its region in Pakistan and northwest India. The evidence of religious practices there dates back to around 5500 BC. Farming settlements began around 4000 BCE and there appeared to be the primary signs of urbanization around 3000 BCE. By 2600 BCE, many towns and urban areas were built, and the Indus Valley Civilization was at its apex somewhere in the range of 2500 and 2000 BCE.

Indus Valley Civilization's lifestyle

There was been two urban communities, specifically, have been unearthed at the locales of Mohenjo-Daro on the lower Indus, and at Harappa, further upstream. The proof proposes they had a profoundly evolved city life; numerous houses had wells and bathrooms just as a detailed underground drainage framework. The social states of the residents were equivalent to those in Sumeria and better than the contemporary Babylonians and Egyptians. These urban areas show a very much arranged urbanization framework.
There is evidence of some level of interaction between the Indus Valley Civilization and the Near East. Commercial, religious and artistic connections are recorded in Sumerian documents, where the people of the Indus Valley are called Meluhites and the Indus Valley is called Meluha. The following account is dated to about 2000 BCE: "The Meluhites, the people of the Kali land, bring all kinds of foreign goods to the Naram-Sin of Agade."
The Indus civilization had a writing system that remains a mystery even today: all attempts to understand it have failed. This is one of the reasons that the Indus Valley Civilization is one of the important early civilizations of antiquity. Examples of this writing system have been found in pottery, amulets, carved pieces, and even weights and copper tablets.
Another purpose of discussion is the idea of the connection between these urban areas. Regardless of whether they were free city-states or some portion of a bigger state was not so much clear. Since the works of the Indus individuals are undisputed and neither sculptures of rulers nor portrayals of fights and military crusades have been discovered, the proof pointed in the two headings isn't definitive.

Fall of Indus Valley Civilization

From 1800 BCE, the Indus Valley Civilization saw the start of their decay: Writing began to vanish, normalized loads and measures utilized for exchange and tax collection purposes dropped out of utilization, the association with the Near East was intruded, and a few urban communities were bit by bit relinquished. The purposes behind this decrease are not so much clear, however it is accepted that the evaporating of the Saraswati River, a procedure which had started around 1900 BCE, was the primary driver. Different specialists talk about an extraordinary flood in the region. Either occasion would have effectsly affected horticultural movement, making the economy not, at this point maintainable and breaking the city request of the urban communities.
Around 1500 BCE, a large group of nomadic cattle herdsmen, the Aryans, migrated to the region from Central Asia. The Aryan Hindus came into contact with the Indus Valley Civilization by crossing the Kush Mountains. This was a major migration and was seen as an invasion that was thought to be the cause of the decline of the Indus Valley Civilization, but this hypothesis is not unanimously accepted today.
In this manner, the Indus Valley Civilization reached to end. Over the course of several centuries, the Aryans gradually settled and adopted agriculture. The language brought by the Aryans dominated local languages: the origins of the most spoken languages   in South Asia today go back to the Aryans, who introduced Indo-European languages   to the Indian subcontinent. Other features of modern Indian society, such as religious practices and caste division, can also be traced back to the time of Aryan migration. Many pre-Aryan customs still survive in India. Evidence supporting this claim includes: the continuation of pre-Aryan traditions; Practiced by many sectors of Indian society; And it is also likely that some of the principal deities of the Hindu pantheons actually originated in the time of the Indus Valley Civilization and were kept "alive" by the natives for centuries.

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