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Saturday, May 16, 2020

History of Roman Empire

Roman Empire was at its peak (in c. 117 BCE), the most widespread political and social structure in Western civilization. By 285 CE the empire had become too large to be ruled by the central government in Rome and was therefore divided into a Western and Eastern empire by the Emperor Doklein (r. 284305 CE). The Roman Empire began when Augustus Caesar (r. 27 BCE-14 CE) turned into the primary sovereign of Rome and finished, in the west, when the last Roman head, Romulus Augustulus (r. 475–476 CE), was dismissed by the Germanic King Odoacer (r. 476-493 CE). The Roman was continued as the Byzantine Empire (in the east )until the death of Constantine XI (r. 1449–1453 CE) and the fall of Constantinople to Ottoman Turks in 1453 CE. The Roman Empire's influence on Western civilization was profound in its lasting contribution to almost every aspect of Western culture.

The Old Dynasties

In 31 BCE, after the Battle of Actium, Geus Octavian Thurinus, nephew and heir of Zeus Caesar, became the first emperor of Rome and took the name Augustus Caesar. Although Julius Caesar is often considered the first emperor of Rome, this is incorrect; He never held the title of 'Emperor', but rather, 'dictator', a title that could not help the Senate, but could not grant him, as Caesar had supreme military and political power at the time. In contrast, the Senate voluntarily conferred the title of Emperor to Augustus, waving praise and power over him as he destroyed the enemies of Rome and brought much-needed stability.
Augustus ruled the empire from 31 BCE to 14 BCE when he died. At that time, as he himself stated, he "found Rome a city of clay but left it a city of marble." Augustus reformed the laws of the city and, by extension, secured the empire, the borders of Rome, initiated massive construction projects (largely by his loyal general Agrippa (l. 63–12 BC), who First manufactured Pantone), and secured. The Empire, a permanent name as one of the greatest political and cultural powers in history. Pax Romana (Roman Peace), also known as Pax Augusta, which he started, was an unknown time of peace and prosperity and would last more than 200 years.

After Augustus's death, power was handed over to his successor, Tiberius (r. 14–37 CE), who continued many of the emperor's policies, but lacked the strength of character and vision that defined Augustus. Later, this trend would more or less persist with later emperors: Caligula (r. 37–41 CE), Claudius (r. 41–54 CE), and Nero (r. 54–68 CE). These initial five leaders of the empire alluded to the Julio-Claudian line for the two family names they were slipped from (either by birth or through adoption), Julius and Claudius. Although Caligula has become notorious for its apathy and apparent insanity, his early rule was admirable because his successor was Claudius, who expanded the power and territory of Rome in Britain; This was less so than Nero. Caligula and Claudius are both murdered in the office (their Praetorian guards at Caligula and Claudius, apparently, by his wife). Nero's suicide stopped the Julio-Claudian tradition and a time of social agitation known as The Year of the Four Emperors.

Decline of Roman Empire

The collapse of the Western Roman Empire was a process of collapse during which the empire failed to implement its rule, and its vast territory was divided into several successors. The Roman Empire lost the forces that permitted it to have effective control; Modern historians have refered to factors including the viability and number of the military, the health and numbers of the Roman population, the strength of the economy, the emperor's ability, the religious changes of the period, and the efficiency of civil administration. The increasing pressure from barbarians outside Roman culture also contributed greatly to the collapse. Among the causes of the collapse are the major themes of the historicity of the ancient world, and they give very modern discourses on the failure of the state.

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